Guide for Authors

Article type and formatting

  • A manuscript should be formatted into a one-column file (use the template).


    • Include meaningful keywords (maximum 6 words).
    • Include all figures (include relevant captions)
    • Include all tables (including titles, description and footnotes)
    • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
    • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
  • Figures and tables should be integrated within the text.

Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

  • E-mail address
  • Full postal address

Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Article structure

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Literature review
Comprehensively review the state-of-the art in the topic being the subject of the paper in order to effectively connect with the current and past efforts relevant to the paper.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Nomenclature and Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conversions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. Authors wishing to present a table of nomenclature should do so on the second page of their manuscript.


Reference to a journal publication:

[1] Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Science Communication. 163, 51–59.

Reference to a journal publication with an article number:

[2] Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2018. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 19, e00205.

Reference to a book:

[3] Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

[4] Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

Reference to a website:

[5] Cancer Research UK, 1975. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ (accessed 13 March 2003).